Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Privacy Policy

Privacy Policy for fungtionstrategy.blogspot.com/

If you require any more information or have any questions about our privacy policy, please feel free to contact us by email at kh.umarmasud@gmail.com.

At fungtionstrategy.blogspot.com/, the privacy of our visitors is of extreme importance to us. This privacy policy document outlines the types of personal information is received and collected by fungtionstrategy.blogspot.com/ and how it is used.

Log Files
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Cookies and Web Beacons
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DoubleClick DART Cookie
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Some of our advertising partners may use cookies and web beacons on our site. Our advertising partners include ....
Google Adsense

These third-party ad servers or ad networks use technology to the advertisements and links that appear on fungtionstrategy.blogspot.com/ send directly to your browsers. They automatically receive your IP address when this occurs. Other technologies ( such as cookies, JavaScript, or Web Beacons ) may also be used by the third-party ad networks to measure the effectiveness of their advertisements and / or to personalize the advertising content that you see.

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If you wish to disable cookies, you may do so through your individual browser options. More detailed information about cookie management with specific web browsers can be found at the browsers' respective websites.

Supply chain organization structure Supplier organization (Business Edition)

The supplier organization does not subscribe directly to any policy groups. As a result it inherits the management and administration policy group from the root organization. These policies apply to the supplier organization, the supplier A organizations that it owns, and the supplier A administrators.

The B2B direct organization subscribes directly to the management and administration, the common shopping, B2B and supplier profile policy groups. These policies apply to all stores owned by the B2B direct organization.

The Supplier profile policy group contains the following policies:

    * AllUsersForSupplierExecuteSupplierAllUsersViews
    * RegisteredCustomersForOrgForSupplierExecuteSupplierRegisteredCustomerViews

Buyers are customers that place orders in a B2B store. All buyers must be owned by a buyer organization. Typically, buyer organizations do not subscribe to any policy groups, since management and administration policies inherited from the root organization are sufficient.

Supply chain organization structure Asset store (Business Edition)

The asset store organization does not subscribe directly to any policy groups. As a result it inherits the management and administration policy group from the root organization. These policies apply to the asset store organization and the asset stores that it owns. The asset store organization owns the supplier profile policy group, but does not subscribe to it.

Note: The individual supplier's B2B direct organization will subscribe to the supplier profile policy group when the supplier store is created.

Supply chain organization structure Supplier hub (Business Edition)

In these diagrams, describing a basic supply chain organization structure, the root organization owns and subscribes to the default policy groups as described in Access control policies and policy group structure.
Supplier hub

The supplier hub organization subscribes directly to the management and administration policy group, the common shopping policy group, the B2B policy group and owns and subscribes to the Supplier hub policy group. As a result, these policies apply to the channel administrators, who are directly under the supplier hub organization, as well as to the supplier hub.

The Supplier hub policy group contains the following policies:

    * AllUsersForSupplierHubExecuteSupplierHubAllUsersViews
    * RegisteredCustomersForOrgForSupplierHubExecuteSupplierHubRegisteredCustomerViews
    * ContractAdministratorsForChannelOrgExecuteCreateCommandsOnMemberResource
    * ContractAdministratorsForChannelOrgExecuteContractDeployCommandsOnContractResource
    * ContractAdministratorsForChannelOrgDisplayContractDatabeanResourceGroup

Organization structure

In order to allow customers or buyers to access your site, browse your catalog, and place orders; or to allow employees to administer the site, including updating the catalog, creating new promotions, or managing orders; or to allow resellers or other business partners to complete transactions on your site, all actors in your business scenario must be assigned a position in the WebSphere Commerce organization structure.

The WebSphere Commerce organization structure provides a framework for the actors, or entities, in your business scenario. This framework is organized in a hierarchical structure, which mimics typical organizational hierarchies with entries for organizations and organizational units and users. The organizations and organizational units in the framework act as owners for the parts of your business. All parts of your business, including customers, administrators, stores, catalogs and distributors, must be owned by an organization or organizational unit.

The organization structure and the access control model, are closely related, in that the access control model applies access control policies to organizations rather than to individual entities (stores, customers, administrators and so on). The policies that apply to an entity (or resource) are applied to the organizations that own the entity or resource.

The following diagram outlines the basic WebSphere Commerce organization structure. The basic organization structure is installed during instance creation, regardless of the business model.

Root organization
    The root organization is the top level organization and is its own parent. All organizations in the WebSphere Commerce organization structure are descendents of the root organization. The site administrators are owned by the root organization.
Default organization
    The default organization is owned by the root organization. All guest customers and all customers in a consumer direct scenario belong to the default organization. Customers in a B2B direct and value chain scenario can belong to either the default organization, or other organizations.

One or more other levels of organizational entities can exist beneath the parent organizational entities. You can add as many child organizational entities as necessary to support your business.
Sample organization structures

WebSphere Commerce provides sample organizations structures for each supported business model. These sample organization structures are available on their own (as component store archives) allowing you to use the sample organization structure as starting point for your own site, or as part of the sample businesses.
Creating organization structures

Rather than create new organization structures for your site, it is recommended that you begin by publishing one of the sample organization structures provided with WebSphere Commerce, and then make changes to that organization structure as necessary.

Asset stores (Business Edition)

In order to facilitate the creation and management of multiple stores such as customer-facing stores and proxy stores, WebSphere Commerce implements asset stores. Asset stores contain collections of sharable resources (business artifacts, business processes and storefront assets) that can be leveraged in other stores. For example, instead of creating a catalog as part of the hub, a hub may leverage a catalog asset store, which can also be shared by the hub's channels or partners. As a result, a simple catalog can be used by hundreds or thousands of stores, thereby reducing data management needs. An asset store is usually composed of the assets that can be used by multiple stores, but is in itself not a fully functional store and does not conduct business transactions.

WebSphere Commerce provides sample catalog asset stores and storefront asset stores. The following diagram illustrates the relationship between stores and a catalog asset store.

Proxy stores (Business Edition)

WebSphere Commerce also supports entities known as proxy stores. A proxy store is a store that represents a business partner's operational assets and provides the business logic that allows the WebSphere Commerce site to interact with an external business partner. The proxy store also contains operational data that gets updated in interaction with the business proxy site. For example, a proxy store may capture the orders transferred to a remote order capture system, as well as capturing the suppliers' inventory information or the information sent to a supplier's fulfillment centers. Unlike a customer-facing store, a proxy store does not include a storefront and cannot be accessed by users.
Creating proxy stores

Creating a proxy store is very similar to creating a store in an extended site, in that the majority of the proxy store assets are provided from existing stores (including asset stores). As implemented in the samples provided with WebSphere Commerce, the proxy store does not include a storefront. The following diagram illustrates the distributor proxy stores using the assets from the distributor asset store and the catalog asset store.

Rather than providing a user interface wizard to create a proxy store, WebSphere Commerce implements proxy stores through service agreements, which are then imported via a user interface, into WebSphere Commerce, creating the proxy store. The service agreement is governed by a template, which determines what information you need to create. The template for creating proxy stores (TemplateReferralContract.xml) is available in the following directory:

Value chain (Business Edition)

Value chains are supported through two business models: demand chain and a supply chain; WebSphere Commerce supports the transactions through, and relationship management of both the demand chain business model and supply chain business model. Value chains support transactions involving multiple enterprises or parties. Products, goods, services, or information are delivered through the parties of the value chain from producers to end users. A value chain also has relationship and administrative aspects, that is, you can manage the relationship of the partners or enterprises in your value chain, as well as offer some administrative services to those parties.

As a result, value chains must manage the two sides of their businesses: their customers and direct sales, and their channel partners and suppliers. Each requires its own management channels and practices.

To sell directly to customers (direct sales), value chains usually include a storefront, where customers can purchase their goods or services directly.

To manage relationships with partners or suppliers, the demand chain and a supply chain models within the value chain include a hub. Under these models, value chain administrators can administer the operational aspects of the value chain in the hub, including enabling partners or suppliers to participate in the value chain by registering them, setting them up, and conducting various operations. Partners and suppliers can also access the hub to complete administrative tasks such as registering users.

The following diagram provides an overview of the partners and relationships that can be supported in value chains.

Evaluate prior research of applicants

This diagram shows more in detail the part of the global information system that acts as a decision support system for university administrations and research funding organizations. At best, the publications themselves are assessed by peers, but very often due to time and resource constraints the status of the journal where a researcher has published is used as a proxy for quality. Citation counts, using a system such as the ISI Web of Science, provide a reasonably objective measure of the impact of a particular publication, but only after a considerable time lag. The uploading of the metadata of a publication to a CRIS (Current Research Information System) is interesting from the information system development viewpoint, since the author is usually asked to do this, and since it would be very useful to integrate the CRIS system with the institutional repository of the same university (Asserson and Simons 2006). CRIS systems are used in Finland, for instance, to produce the statistics that the Department of Education requires from all universities.

Revenue Model

In the simplest sense, a revenue model is how a business gathers revenues for products and\or services it provides. As a subset of the business model, it specifies how to convert the value into cash.

Business models…visually

Apply Visual Thinking to Business Models & Revenue Models using my experience and passion for:


Sketching ideas


Visual Thinking




Start ups


Angel Investing

Draw more…and write less…very less.

Revenue Models are not Business Models

Revenue models are not business models.  They are a subset of the entire business model and specify how value is converted to cash.

What is a Business Model?

Business Model is a framework for a business to generate value.

Basic resources like management team, capital, marketing are used to create value. Partners and distribution channels are used to provide this value to the customer and generate revenue.

Questions a Business Model answers

A Business Model addresses some fundamental questions about the business.  To be effective, a business model should address five basic questions,  whose answers are the elements of the business model. By changing these elements a business can develop new business models.

What does a business offer?

Who does it offer the value?

How does it create value?

How does it distribute the value?

How does it earn money?

Business Model vs. Strategy

The difference between Business Models and Strategy has been explained by Chesbrough and Rosenbloom in “Open Innovation” as;

- Business Model creates value while strategy captures the value.

- Business Models create “Business Value” and does not directly create shareholder value.

Function of a Business Model

The function of a business model is to create value, share a portion with the customer and capture the remaining portion.

Post 5 - Functions of a Business Model

Aligning Environmental Dynamism, Purchasing Strategy Formulation, Implementation and Performance

In the recently concluded Academy of Management Annual Meeting that was held Montréal, Canada,I presented the findings from an ongoing research that my co-authors(Jayanth Jayaram and Ajay Das) and I are currently engaged in.This study investigates the alignment between environmental uncertainty, purchasing strategy formulation, purchasing strategy implementation and purchasing performance.By drawing similar parallels from the strategic management literature that have investigated environment-strategy-performance linkages, this research makes a unique contribution to the literature by examining these relationships at a finer grain functional level of purchasing. The research study posits that coping with environmental uncertainty, in particular, the purchasing environment, involves purchasing strategy formulation, which in turn influences purchasing strategy implementation via supplier selection and monitoring ongoing supplier performance evaluation. A combination of choosing appropriate supplier selection criteria and monitoring supplier performance ensures that the benefits of alignment of purchasing strategy with environment translate into better purchasing performance. Specifically,the following research questions are addressed in the study:

- How does environmental dynamism influence purchasing strategy formulation, characterized in terms of purchasing function’s participation in strategic planning?

- How does purchasing strategy formulation translate into different types of purchasing tasks associated with strategy implementation?

- How is purchasing performance influenced by purchasing strategy formulation and purchasing strategy implementation?

The hypotheses are tested using survey data by means of structural equation modeling. The results provide support for the tenet that purchasing function’s strategy alignment enhances the purchasing task-performance relationships. However, these relationships varied according to the type of purchasing performance that was considered. In particular, relationships affecting strategic or operational tasks were not uniform and there was a differential effect on different types of purchasing performance measures.The results of this study have implications on how routines, as well as roles and responsibilities of purchasing and suppliers enable purchasing performance via dominant pathway relationships.Specifically, the results suggest that purchasing cost performance improvement is attained through a strong alignment of environmental dynamism with purchasing strategy formulation and the translation of purchasing strategy formulation into tasks associated with purchasing strategy implementation. The findings suggest that supplier’s strategic performance evaluation enables supplier’s operational performance evaluation, which in turn leads to improved purchasing cost performance. 
Quality, delivery, and flexibility performance of the purchasing function are influenced by three distinct paths. The first path is through purchasing strategy formulation to strategic supplier selection criteria and in turn to operational supplier selection criteria. The second path relates to the direct association between purchasing strategy formulation and operational supplier selection criteria. The third path is via the link between purchasing strategy formulation to supplier’s strategic performance evaluation, and in turn to supplier’s operational performance evaluation. Operational supplier selection criteria and supplier’s operational performance evaluation influences delivery, quality and flexibility performance dimensions. As compared to other purchasing performance dimensions, purchasing innovation performance is directly impacted by purchasing strategy formulation. Furthermore, the path linking purchasing strategy formulation with strategic supplier selection criteria also impacts purchasing innovation performance.Taken together, the results show differential pathways or routines based on the individual performance dimension that is being tracked.  The findings suggest that irrespective of the purchasing performance dimension, purchasing strategy formulation must be closely aligned with environmental dynamism. The dominant pathway for the translation of purchasing strategy formulation into improved performance is through positive significant impact on strategic supplier selection criteria and on supplier’s strategic performance evaluation. The association of purchasing strategy formulation with operational supplier selection criteria, albeit weak, also enables translation of strategy formulation into improved performance.  The managerial implications of the findings are that firms characterized by substantial changes in customer requirements related to quality, price, technological features, delivery and customization should involve purchasing in strategy formulation. This strategy formulation process impacts purchasing strategy implementation in two distinct ways. In the initial strategy implementation phase, purchasing is involved in devising supplier selection criteria. At this phase purchasing function’s involvement in cross-departmental joint business goal setting, active participation in corporate strategy meetings, recommendation and influence on end products are positively associated with strategic and operational supplier selection criteria. Subsequently, purchasing strategy implementation involves assessing the ongoing performance of the selected suppliers. The results suggest that purchasing strategy formulation is positively associated with strategic supplier performance assessment.  The multi-dimensional nature of purchasing performance is influenced by purchasing strategy implementation in varying ways. This suggests that at the corporate level it is important to have an understanding of the practices that are necessary to achieve specific performance improvements. Purchasing function’s cost performance is influenced by the supplier performance assessment phase of purchasing strategy implementation. Purchasing strategy formulation enables a firm to evaluate supplier’s strategic performance in terms of product technology, assistance in product development efforts, potential to undertake necessary investments, global reach, and ability to navigate technological changes. These strategic performance assessment measures enable an evaluation of supplier’s operational performance, typified in terms of supplier’s performance on cost, quality, product customization, delivery flexibility, and volume flexibility.  Similar to cost performance, purchasing function’s quality, flexibility and delivery performance are also positively influenced by a similar routine that links purchasing strategy formulation, supplier’s strategic and operational performance evaluation and performance. However, in addition to this routine, quality, flexibility and delivery performance are also influenced by the supplier selection task of purchasing strategy implementation. The results reveal that purchasing function’s innovation performance is directly influenced by purchasing strategy formulation and by the strategic supplier selection criteria. Operational supplier selection criteria and supplier’s performance assessment were not found to be positively associated with innovation performance. These findings emphasize the need for careful resource allocations to various purchasing strategy implementation tasks depending upon the specific performance dimension that need to be improved.  The results of this study also present implications for the reciprocal relationship between performance dimension and managerial attention to the tasks associated with purchasing strategy implementation. For example, firms that evaluate purchasing solely in terms of cost performance would instill a behavior focused on supplier performance evaluation. However, when firms give recognition to additional dimensions of purchasing performance, this instigates attention on both supplier selection and supplier performance assessment phases of purchasing strategy implementation. Evaluation of purchasing in terms of innovation performance is still relatively limited in industry. The study informs that firms seeking innovation performance from purchasing should include purchasing in strategy formulation process. Further, a focus on innovation performance motivates the purchasing function to give higher degree of attention to strategic supplier selection criteria. Finally, the findings of this study have implications for talent management in the purchasing arena. Recognition of routines that work relative to individual purchasing performance dimension that is being optimized and isolation of new and emerging routines over time constitute important tasks for purchasing personnel who are desirous of advancing in their careers. This aspect is especially important given the high turnover rate amongst high performing purchasing managers. Firms who are desirous of remaining at the cutting edge of performance frontiers should place special emphasis on attracting the right talent pool and retaining this talent in order to preserve the intellectual knowledge base (pertaining to routines) that is prevalent within firms.